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Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

The Inference Group.

David MacKay's group works on machine learning and information theory. Current projects involve neural networks, automated Go playing, the design of record-breaking error-correcting codes and quantum error-correcting codes, and the construction of human-computer interfaces that make use of adaptive language models.

News - last updated May 2013

  • From October 1st 2009 to 2014, David MacKay works 4 days per week as Chief Scientific Advisor to the Department of Energy and Climate Change
  • On 29th March 2013, David MacKay was appointed Regius Professor of Engineering, and officially moved on from the Cavendish Laboratory, where he's worked since January 1992, to the Information Engineering divisionof the Engineering Department (CUED).
  • This inference group website will hopefully be preserved but will be mothballed and superceded by new websites at CUED.
  • Researchers who would like to work with David MacKay on whole-system energy modelling are encouraged to look at the jobs being advertised by Julian Allwood.
  • Upcoming talks

    More group meetings


    Cavendish Lab Other departments
    Faculty David MacKay
    Alan Blackwell
    Zoubin Ghahramani
    Per Ola Kristensson
    Patrick Welche
    Alan Lawrence
    Emli-Mari Nel
    John Winn
    Keith Vertanen
    Christian Steinruecken
    Philip Sterne
    Carl Scheffler
    Philipp Hennig
    Tamara Broderick
    Ryan Adams
    Oliver Stegle
    Hanna Wallach
    David Stern
    Phil Cowans
    Miriam Backens

    Will Zou
    See also the Former Members' page


    Dasher logo
    DIMPY: Physical quantities in python and Sage


    John Skilling's BayeSys

    music access for the disabled
    bayesimage BayesImage by Venkat Ramesh


    Teaching by David, Steve, and Sanjoy


    Inference wiki | Internal wiki | Dasher Wiki

    We enjoy collaborations with Cambridge Centre for Energy Studies, the Computational and Biological Learning Lab, CUED, TCM, Cavendish Astrophysics, Microsoft Research, and the Rainbow group.

    What's old: Special One Day Meeting | wiki | slides


    Inference group projects

    The Inference Group works on machine learning and information theory. Current projects involve computation in neural networks, the modelling of DNA microarray data, the design of record-breaking error-correcting codes, quantum error correcting codes, the teaching of Physics, and the construction of information-efficient human-computer interfaces.


    DNA microarray

    Software packages

    Dasher text entry interface   
    Rate 1/4 code, channel signal to noise 0.84 -> decoded transmission, all errors corrected
    Before decoding After decoding
    eye-tracker dasher experiments xybernaut wearable tcl dasher ipaq running dasher japanese dasher

    Some contact details

    Christian Steinruecken, Room 514, extension 37278
    Keith Vertanen, Room 514, extension 37278
    Dr Piotr Zielinski, Room 514, extension 37278
    Philip Sterne, Room 515, extension 37460
    Ryan Adams, Room 516, extension 37238
    Oliver Stegle, Room 516, extension 37238
    Carl Scheffler (from April 1), Room 517, extension 64164
    Prof David MacKay, Room 518, extension 39852


    Group meetings

    The Machine Learning group at CUED and the Inference Group at the Cavendish Laboratory hold joint weekly group meetings, usually on Wednesdays at 2pm (but sometimes at other times), and alternating venues between Engineering and the Physics department.

    To make sure that you get automated emails about all these joint group meetings, please visit and click on "Send you e-mail reminders".

    Future talks | Past talks

    How this list of talks is generated

    All inference group activities in one table


    Short talks:

    David Stern
    Katherine Heller
    Anitha Kannan
    Ryan Turner
    Philip Sterne
    Finale Doshi
    Sean Holden
    Andrew Fitzgibbon
    Miguel Lázaro Gredilla
    Martin Szummer
    Blaise Thomson
    Ryan Adams
    Chris Bishop
    Frederik Eaton
    Yunus Saatci
    Phil Cowans
    Sinead Williamson
    Ricardo Silva
    Andrew Naish
    Philipp Hennig
    Arik Azran
    Philip Dawid
    Christian Steinrücken
    Andreas Vlachos
    Ed Snelson
    Joaquin Quinonero Candela


    Are you a seminar organizer? Do you maintain a webpage that lists upcoming talks, seminars, or journal clubs? Then is for you.

    At, you can create your own series (one or more series, as you wish); you, the other managers of your series, and the speakers themselves can enter the content into the series database at; and automatically serves up live, up-to-date content into your webpages, using listings -- not only your webpages, but into lots of other people's webpages too, because your series content will now be automatically advertised to everyone who is interested. (Other people can add your series to their listings.) integrates seamlessly into your existing websites (See this page for an example where the talk content comes from Or if you would like to have a series website created for you by, we can do that too (as shown by this example).

    If this isn't enough to convince you that you should switch over your seminar list management to, here are some additional features:

    1. will automate the task of communicating with the speaker, asking for his/her title and abstract, and ensuring that all websites are immediately updated when that information is provided.
    2. provides personalized browsing and searching of the University-wide database.
    3. in the next planned version, will also handle the task of sending email announcements of talks to people who want to receive emails.


    Pages in which embedded content is delivered live by
    Pages entirely generated by
    Website managers may be interested in viewing the source of the above pages to see how simple they are.

    How our talks listings are generated

    Our talks listings (on for example our home page) are generated automatically by a talks-listing service created by Phil Cowans, in collaboration with Alan Blackwell, Duncan Simpson, and David MacKay, with support from Cambridge University Research Exchange (CURE).

    To get the content included, all that I need to put in the webpage is this

     <script language="javascript"

    plus, to get the `look' delivered too, I add the following rules to my style sheet:

    .talklist_date{ background-color: #dddddd; font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_header{ font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_entry{ }
    .talklist_block{ clear: right; }
    .talklist_block_small{ font-size: 0.8em; }
    .talklist_date_small{ background-color: #dddddd; font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_header_small{ font-weight: bold; }

    The content of our series database is managed by our talk series organizer through a nice web interface.

    To get the content in the smaller box on the group home page, I used:

     <script language="javascript"

    Alternatively you can use this style sheet
    .talklist_date{ border-top-style: dashed; border-bottom-style: dashed;
    border-left-style: none; border-right-style: none; border-width: 1px;
    border-color: #cccccc; margin-top: 8px; margin-bottom: 8px; margin-left:
    16px; }
    .talklist_week{ border-top-style: solid; border-bottom-style: solid;
    border-left-style: none; border-right-style: none; border-width: 2px;
    border-color: #cccccc; margin-top: 8px; margin-bottom: 8px; font-weight:
    bold; }
    .talklist_header{ font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_speaker{ font-style: italic; }
    .talklist_entry{ margin-bottom: 16px; margin-left: 32px; }
    which will make it look like this.

    Here is Mike Roses' style-sheet cocktail:

    .talklist_entry{ }
    .talklist_block{ clear: right; }
    .talklist_block_small{ font-size: 0.8em; }
    .talklist_date_small{ background-color: #dddddd; font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_header_small{ font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_date{ border-top-style: dashed; border-bottom-style: dashed;
    ft-style: none; border-right-style: none; border-width: 1px; border-color:
    cc; margin-top: 8px; margin-bottom: 8px; margin-left: 16px; font-weight:
    bold; }
    .talklist_week{ border-top-style: solid; border-bottom-style: solid;
    -style: none; border-right-style: none; border-width: 2px; border-color:
    ; margin-top: 8px; margin-bottom: 8px; font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_header{ font-weight: bold; }
    .talklist_speaker{ font-style: italic; }
    .talklist_entry{ margin-bottom: 16px; margin-left: 32px; }


    Information about the group

    News - last updated May 2013

  • From October 1st 2009 to 2014, David MacKay works 4 days per week as Chief Scientific Advisor to the Department of Energy and Climate Change
  • On 29th March 2013, David MacKay was appointed Regius Professor of Engineering, and officially moved on from the Cavendish Laboratory, where he's worked since January 1992, to the Information Engineering divisionof the Engineering Department (CUED).
  • This inference group website will hopefully be preserved but will be mothballed and superceded by new websites at CUED.
  • Researchers who would like to work with David MacKay on whole-system energy modelling are encouraged to look at the jobs being advertised by Julian Allwood.

  • Bibliography files of MacKay group members

    • bib entries for all publications submitted or published while anyone is in the group should be deposited in files in this directory (/home/ftp/pub/www/is/bibs/).
    • One paper copy of the final printed paper should be given to DJCM and two copies to the RA secretary so that the paper is included in the RA database. If a large delay is expected between submission and publication then please give me a copy of the submitted paper.
    • The RA database form should be filled in and given to the RA secretary, and the RA database number should be included in the .bib entry in this directory.
    • If you wish, put postscript files for papers on the web server either under your own home page or in the group postscript directory.

    Recommended format

    Please use the bibtex style and include all relevant information in the .bib entry.
    • In the case of papers published in conference proceedings, include all authors names with initials, full title, page numbers (start-end), editor of proceedings, title of proceedings, publisher, address of publisher.
    • In an `annote' environment, include the information you put in the RA database form regarding date submitted, date accepted, date published, collaborating institutes.
    • Also include the RA database number.
    • If it is easy to do so, include the abstract too.
    Example entry:
     AUTHOR		={L. Gavard and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia and
    		  D. J. C.  MacKay and S. Suzuki},
     TITLE		={Bayesian Neural Network Model for Austenite
    		  Formation in Steels},
     journal        ={Materials Science and Technology},
     vol            =12,
     pages          ={453-463},
     YEAR           =1996,
     ANNOTE         ="Date submitted: May 1995; Date accepted: n/k 1995;
                      Collaborating institutes:
    		  Cambridge University Department of Metallurgy and
    		  Materials Science. MRAO reprint number 1941."}

    David MacKay <>
    Last modified: Tue Jul 17 12:55:43 2001

    PhD Theses submitted

    TitleExaminersExamination date
    Mark Gibbs Bayesian Gaussian Processes for Regression and Classification Steve Gull(?) and Chris Williams ~ Sep 3 1997
    Matthew Davey Error-Correction using Low-Density Parity-Check Codes. Steve Gull and Paddy Farrell Friday 17th December, 1999
    Simon Wilson Applications of cyclic belief propagation Ross Anderson and Paddy Farrell May 29th 2000
    James Miskin Ensemble Learning for Independent Component Analysis. Steve Gull and Stephen Roberts ~ April 19, 2001
    David Ward Adaptive Computer Interfaces Tadashi Tokieda and Peter Littlewood ~ 18 December 2001
    John Winn Variational Message Passing and its Applications Zoubin Ghahramani and David Spiegelhalter November 2003 (Submitted September 2003)
    Ed Ratzer Error-correction on non-standard communication channels November 2003 (Submitted September 2003)
    Seb Wills Computation with Spiking Neurons Carlos Brody and Graeme Mitchison November 2004 (Submitted October 1 2004)
    Phil Cowans Probabilistic Document Modelling Zoubin Ghahramani and Steve Renals April 28th 2006 (Examined 9 May 06)
    David Stern Modelling Uncertainty in the Game of Go Stephen Eglen and Yee-Whye Teh Examined Nov 28 2007
    Hanna Wallach Structured Topic Models for Language Zoubin Ghahramani and Yee-Whye Teh Submitted 9 June 2008, Examined June 22 2008
    Ryan Adams Nonparametric Bayesian Inference for Probability Densities and Point Processes Carl Edward Rasmussen and Neil Lawrence Submitted 30th April 2009, Examined 1 June 2009
    Keith Vertanen Efficient Correction Interfaces for Speech Recognition John Bridle and Phil Woodland Submitted 30th April 2009, Examined 1 June 2009
    Oliver Stegle Probabilistic models in computational biology Wolfgang Huber and Brendan Frey Submitted 30th April 2009, Examined 1 June 2009
    Philip Hennig Approximate Inference in Graphical Models Zoubin Ghahramani and Neil Lawrence Submitted 14 November 2010, Examined 11 January 2011
    Philip Sterne Distributed Associative Memory Carl Rasmussen and David Willshaw Examined 21 January 2011; Approved 19 April 2011.
    Carl Scheffler Applied Bayesian Inference: Natural Language Modelling and Visual Feature Tracking Phil Woodland and Yee-Whye Teh Submitted 20 December 2010, Examined ... February 2011
    Christian Steinrücken Lossless Data Compression Carl Rasmussen and Frank Wood Examined 23 Oct 2014

    MPhil Theses submitted

    TitleExaminersExamination date
    John Barry Polyphonic Music Transcription using Independent Component Analysis Steve Gull and Mark Plumbley Submitted 25.4.2003
    Tamara Broderick

    Inference group in the news

    (Original article by Jon Pendergast (2002))
    (The story also made it into die Zeit)

    Cambridge Evening News, 18.Dec.00


    Resources for the IS Group

    This page contains a short list of the available online and other resources. This page will offer you the passwords if you have JavaScript enabled on your browser.

    Information for visitors

    How to get a bank account

    Barclays offers a free account with an ATM card and internet banking. They have a branch at 15 Benet street, CB2 3PZ in Cambridge, at the market square close to Kings College.

    Setting up the account takes about 40 minutes, so it is best to call them and make an appointment in advance.

    Call Miss Carly Taylor at +44 (0)1223-542203 (or try +44(0)1223 542139). To open the account you will need:

    • Valid Identification (such as a passport)
    • Proof of your address in the UK
    • Proof of your address for the past 3 years (like a document with your home address)
    • Address of your employer or host (Cambridge University)
    they will ask a ton of questions and check your british debt record.

    When K.S. opened her account, it helped to have a letter of introduction from the university department (a letter from DJCM was good enough). This letter should have the name exactly as it appears in the passport, and both the addresses of the visitor (last address and current address).

    | MSR seminars |

    All inference group activities - talks, lunches, journal clubs, department seminars

    Travel insurance

    From 1 August 2007 the University is now providing free comprehensive travel insurance for employees travelling abroad on University business as long as the trip has been registered.

    Trips should be registered online.

    Inference Group Research Grants / Accounts

    Accounts: x37412, Mr Matthew Burgess

    AEGIS Research Grant - RG50866 KMZA/061 with EC FP7 CP - Collaborative Projects

    SET UP AS PER CONTRACT - EURO 561,721.65 AT EXCHANGE RATE 1.34 = STERLING ?419,195.26 - SUBJECT TO CHANGE WHEN ACTUAL EXCHANGE RATE IS KNOWN RG Number: 50866 UFS Project: KMZA/061 pFACT ID: 7910 PI Name: MacKay, DJC Department: Physics - Theory of Condensed Matter Sponsor: EC FP7 CP ? Collaborative Projects Sponsor Ref: 224348 Start Date: 2008-09-01 End Date: 2012-02-29 Full Title: AEGIS - Open Accessibility Everywhere: Groundwork, Infrastructure, Standards
    	* Payments are expressed in person-months
    	* Month 1 = Now, i.e.  1st September 2008
    Period         Person-months
    ------	       -------------
    M 1-12            26
    M13-24            30
    M25-36            30
    M37-44/end	  11.90
    ----------     -------------
    Total             97.90

    Dasher donations

    KM.KMGB.EGDT - (24.7K on Thu 23/8/07)

    Nokia donations

    KM.KMGC.HBDT - (18K on Thu 23/8/07)

    Lab consumables

    KM.KMGB.AAAA - (1K on Thu 23/8/07)

    MacKay General Fund

    KM.KMGB.EFBQ - (20.9K on Thu 23/8/07)
    Per Ola K RG52032 with EC FP7 MC IEF - Intra-European Fellowships for Career Development. STERLING 120,317.90
    started 1 July 2008.


    RG47219 (studentship for Christian S) activated Wed Jan 3 12:36:55 2007 Wed Jan 3 12:36:55 2007 RG NUMBER: 47219 pFACT ID: 3399 UFS PROJECT: The project number has now been changed From KKZA/047 - Astrophysics To KMZA/036 - Theory of condensed Matter Physics PI NAME: MacKay, Doctor David JC DEPARTMENT: Physics - Astrophysics SPONSOR: Microsoft Research Limited (MRL) SPONSOR REF: 2007-011 START DATE: 01/10/2006 END DATE: 30/09/2009 FULL TITLE: MRL Studentship for Christian Steinruecken: "Learning to recognise hierarchies of objects and scenes"



    SAMSUNG: grant for work on communication and tracking RG47069 RG47069 KKZA/044 (transferred 2000 equipment money to AP)

    Distributed phase codes, and Beyond Dasher

    RG43517 with Gatsby Charitable Foundation RG 43517 KMZA/051
    Please note I have reduced the consumables budget by ?284 to keep in line with the +Gatsby allocation for the 1st year of ?98,374. Jamie Horsley Applications and Awards Manager Research Services Division 16 Mill Lane Cambridge CB2 1SB T: +44 (0) 1223 765018 F: +44 (0) 1223 332988
    RG NUMBER:	43517
    UFS PROJECT:	was KKZA/038  now  RG 43517 KMZA/051
    PI NAME:	MacKay, Prof D J C
    DEPARTMENT:	Physics - Astrophysics
    SPONSOR:	Gatsby Charitable Foundation
    START DATE:	01/01/2005
    END DATE:	31/12/2007
    FULL TITLE:	Distributed Phase Codes and 'Beyond Dasher' projects
    Direct tel:	64191	Fax: 01223 332988

    Receiving donations

    The IBAN number is: IBANGB96BARC20171910921084 The Swift code is: BARCGB22 The IBAN number includes the bank sort code and account number but just for completeness these are: Sort Code: 20-17-19 A/c No.: 10921084 When the transfer is made could you ask for the Reference/Comment " Physics KM (MacKay donation) " to be added so that we can pick the item up in the listings and transfer it to your account?

    Martin King donation to support Disabled-related research

    The sterling amount is 15,523.13. account is KK.KKBO.HABQ

    5000USD (3129.89UKP) by the Nine Tuna Foundation to support rehabilitative engineering projects. This will shortly be credited to KK.KKBO.HABQ. The Martin King funds are now in that account. This has changed to KK.KKBO.EFBQ which also includes the 15K from MS.

    Funds from RG32843 and RG32054 (CASE awards for Ed and Seb)

    These funds were transferred to the AP CASE account (KK.KKBM.GBAA/B) Tue 23/9/03.

    Microsoft Studentship to support David Stern

    (supervised by Dr Mackay and co-supervised by Thore Graepel of Microsoft Research) reference number RG 38193. Microsoft Studentship for David Stern - Machine Learning For Go
            UFS Project/Task        KKZA/024
     Karen E M Hewitt
    Awards Administrator
    Research Finance Group
    Research Collaboration Office
    16 Mill Lane
    CB2 1SB
    Tel No: 01223 764191
    Fax No: 01223 332988

    IBM award

    was CRA 0171, is now KKCE/HBDT. [bal Fri 28/6/02 7007]

    John Winn

    Further to your enquiry regarding possibly funding from Microsoft for conference attendance, please see the message below from Sharon Renault. The money is in account number KKBM GBAA - Emma knows about it if you want to query anything. As the contract for funding is between students and funding bodies, I haven't seen any correspondence from Microsoft. I understand from you, John, that you also haven't seen any paperwork. >I imagine it will be the same next year. You should check with Robert next >year. > >Regards > >Sharon Renaut


    2,400 (1,000 of which is from MS) available for travel, etc, in AP CASE account KKBM GBAB. KKZA/005


    Award No. RG32054, "Error Correcting Communications (CASE)


    British Telecommunications plc ML845741: "Industrial CASE - Mr S Wills:
    Inference and learning using simple hardware"
        Award No.       RG32843
        Project No.    KKZA/005
        Task No.              1
    The award has an announced period of 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2003.
    The award provides Industrial CASE support for Mr S A Wills for 36 months.

    Gatsby charitable foundation: Senior Research Fellowship for DJCM

    GAT 2277 (starting Sep 2002)
     RG 36363


    UFS project: KKZA/034
    Ec FP6 (NoE - Partner) SPONSOR REF: 511598 START DATE: 01/08/2004 END DATE: 31/07/2007 FULL TITLE: COGAIN: Communication by gaze interaction Administrator: x64191

    The Dasher Project

     RG NUMBER	36325
     UFS Project/Task nos.	KKZA/019
    contact if any questions

    Gatsby charitable foundation: Associate Lectureship for Sanjoy

    GAT 2251 (starting 1 sep 2002) KKZA/013

    Gatsby charitable foundation computer support

    RG 21564. (closed)

    Gatsby charitable foundation - Teaching Physics

    was RG 26397. Now RG: 36075

    EPSRC Withers/MacKay

    EPSRC grant number L 10239. Departmental ref: RG 23369.

    Inferential sciences general fund

    Mon 26/2/07: The general donations account is now KMGB EGDT and there is currently 20,914.32 in there. I will ask Tina to credit this account with the 320.00. [(Money from Parsons, Piresearch) -- was AL01 - 0007, KKCJ GAAA Nippon steel 2000.00]

    This page is restricted to Cambridge access

    The Inference Group Computer System

    a computer user

    How to install packages on Debian machines

    From: Phil Cowans
    As you may know, the new machine, eigg, is running Debian 3.0 rather
    than RedHat Linux. Here are a few notes on installing new packages on
    a Debian machine. Debian uses the 'apt' system for package
    management. This is has the advantage over RPM of being able to
    install dependencies automatically, which normally makes installing
    new packages very easy.
    Here are the commands needed for some common tasks:
    1. Use 'apt-cache search' to give a list of available packages
    matching a given search string, for example:
    kern:~$ apt-cache search gnumeric
    gnumeric - A GNOME spreadsheet application
    gnumeric-doc - Documentation for Gnumeric, the GNOME spreadsheet application
    2. Use 'apt-cache show' to give a detailed description of a package, eg:
    apt-cache show gnumeric-doc
    The following commands all require you to be root in order to carry
    them out:
    3. Use 'apt-get update' to refresh the list of available
    packages. This should really be done before upgrading or installing

    4. Use 'apt-get upgrade ' to upgrade a given package to the latest available version. If is omitted then all installed packages will be upgraded.

    Note that security patches count as upgrades in Debian, and that the stable release (which we have installed) is very rarely changed for any other reason. It is therefore wise to do 'apt-get update' followed by 'apt-get upgrade' every time a security patch is released. Security patches are announced on the debian-security-announce mailing list, which you can subscribe to here.

    5. Use 'apt-get install ' to install the specified package and anything that the package depends on. You will be asked to confirm if this means installing or changing a lot of things. You will also be asked questions to configure the new package if necessary.

    ps. I'll leave it as an exercise to the reader to determine the function of the command 'apt-get moo' (no need to be root) :-)

    Make your own website

    For tips, see this website.

    Computer and Software Resources

    Photo albums

    COGAIN 2005

    Scientific Organisations


    Want to join us?

    Graduate places - this information is no longer applicable

    Applications are handled through the "Mott" system in the Cavendish. Please apply to the Cavendish and also get in touch with David MacKay. Candidates are interviewed by a panel of `wise men' from the Mott building who decide to whom offers can be made. Each year typically one PhD place is available. British students in the group have typically been funded by CASE awards or EPSRC awards. Non-British students have been funded by Gates studentships, by Microsoft research studentships, and by other scholarships, especially ones awarded by the Cambridge Trusts. Questions about joining the group?

    Postdoctoral people

    A helpful list of funding sources for aspiring postdocs, compiled by Robert MacKay

    If you can raise your own money, get in touch!

    New information - last updated May 2013

  • (29th March 2013) - I've been appointed Regius Professor of Engineering, and will be moving from the Cavendish Laboratory, where I've worked since January 1992, to the Engineering Department (CUED). I will continue to work 4 days per week as Chief Scientific Advisor to the Department of Energy and Climate Change.
  • - Researchers who would like to work with me on whole-system energy modelling are encouraged to look at the jobs being advertised by Julian Allwood; I will be collaborating closely with Julian's group in CUED, so these jobs offer a guaranteed route to interaction with me.

  • Figures (pounds) as of Thu 20/3/03, for admission September 2003

            Maintenance   Overhead (@70%) Travel etc    University Fee  College Fee    Total
    Year 1  12,000         8,400          1,100         3000            1,950          26,450
    Year 2  13,500         9,450          1,150         3100            2,020          29,220
    Year 3  15,000         10,500         1,200         3210            2,090          32,000
                                                                               Total   87,670


    1. The maintenance is at the CASE rate (EPSRC stipends are to rise sharply in the next couple of years)
    2. Travel etc. is equivalent to the RTSG of an EPSRC studentship
    3. University fees are 19,546 GB pounds per year for non-european union students

    Got Questions? (Implemented using MetaFAQ) metafaq

    If you are a Physics student: If you are anyone: If you are in the group:
    ask about ask about ask about

    About this server, and nearby sites

    The main organization on this server is the Inference Group, led by David MacKay.

    Other organizations who have websites here are:

    This web server: | Old Search index | Statistics | Everything stats | mirroring |

    The new name for this webserver: - November 2001.
    (Formerly known as wol.ra.phy)
    (New direct route is coll.ra.phy, deprecated)

    Nearby groups and web servers


    Inference group Former members

    Theses submitted

    Other old links

    The Inference Group is supported by the Gatsby Foundation
    and by a partnership award from IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
    David J.C. MacKay
    Site last modified Fri Oct 24 11:49:02 BST 2014